An Introduction to Forensics Data Acquisition From Android Mobile Devices

The role that a Digital Forensics Investigator (DFI) is rife with continuous learning opportunities, especially as technology expands and proliferates into every corner of communications, entertainment and business. As a DFI, we deal with a daily onslaught of new devices. Many of these devices, like the cell phone or tablet, use common operating systems that we need to be familiar with. Certainly, the Android OS is predominant in the tablet and cell phone industry. Given the predominance of the Android OS in the mobile device market, DFIs will run into Android devices in the course of many investigations. While there are several models that suggest approaches to acquiring data from Android devices, this article introduces four viable methods that the DFI should consider when evidence gathering from Android devices.

A Bit of History of the Android OS

Android’s first commercial release was in September, 2008 with version 1.0. Android is the open source and ‘free to use’ operating system for mobile devices developed by Google. Importantly, early on, Google and other hardware companies formed the “Open Handset Alliance” (OHA) in 2007 to foster and support the growth of the Android in the marketplace. The OHA now consists of 84 hardware companies including giants like Samsung, HTC, and Motorola (to name a few). This alliance was established to compete with companies who had their own market offerings, such as competitive devices offered by Apple, Microsoft (Windows Phone 10 – which is now reportedly dead to the market), and Blackberry (which has ceased making hardware). Regardless if an OS is defunct or not, the DFI must know about the various versions of multiple operating system platforms, especially if their forensics focus is in a particular realm, such as mobile devices.

Linux and Android

The current iteration of the Android OS is based on Linux. Keep in mind that “based on Linux” does not mean the usual Linux apps will always run on an Android and, conversely, the Android apps that you might enjoy (or are familiar with) will not necessarily run on your Linux desktop. But Linux is not Android. To clarify the point, please note that Google selected the Linux kernel, the essential part of the Linux operating system, to manage the hardware chipset processing so that Google’s developers wouldn’t have to be concerned with the specifics of how processing occurs on a given set of hardware. This allows their developers to focus on the broader operating system layer and the user interface features of the Android OS.

A Large Market Share

The Android OS has a substantial market share of the mobile device market, primarily due to its open-source nature. An excess of 328 million Android devices were shipped as of the third quarter in 2016. And, according to, the Android operating system had the bulk of installations in 2017 — nearly 67% — as of this writing.

As a DFI, we can expect to encounter Android-based hardware in the course of a typical investigation. Due to the open source nature of the Android OS in conjunction with the varied hardware platforms from Samsung, Motorola, HTC, etc., the variety of combinations between hardware type and OS implementation presents an additional challenge. Consider that Android is currently at version 7.1.1, yet each phone manufacturer and mobile device supplier will typically modify the OS for the specific hardware and service offerings, giving an additional layer of complexity for the DFI, since the approach to data acquisition may vary.

Before we dig deeper into additional attributes of the Android OS that complicate the approach to data acquisition, let’s look at the concept of a ROM version that will be applied to an Android device. As an overview, a ROM (Read Only Memory) program is low-level programming that is close to the kernel level, and the unique ROM program is often called firmware. If you think in terms of a tablet in contrast to a cell phone, the tablet will have different ROM programming as contrasted to a cell phone, since hardware features between the tablet and cell phone will be different, even if both hardware devices are from the same hardware manufacturer. Complicating the need for more specifics in the ROM program, add in the specific requirements of cell service carriers (Verizon, AT&T, etc.).

While there are commonalities of acquiring data from a cell phone, not all Android devices are equal, especially in light that there are fourteen major Android OS releases on the market (from versions 1.0 to 7.1.1), multiple carriers with model-specific ROMs, and additional countless custom user-complied editions (customer ROMs). The ‘customer compiled editions’ are also model-specific ROMs. In general, the ROM-level updates applied to each wireless device will contain operating and system basic applications that works for a particular hardware device, for a given vendor (for example your Samsung S7 from Verizon), and for a particular implementation.

Even though there is no ‘silver bullet’ solution to investigating any Android device, the forensics investigation of an Android device should follow the same general process for the collection of evidence, requiring a structured process and approach that address the investigation, seizure, isolation, acquisition, examination and analysis, and reporting for any digital evidence. When a request to examine a device is received, the DFI starts with planning and preparation to include the requisite method of acquiring devices, the necessary paperwork to support and document the chain of custody, the development of a purpose statement for the examination, the detailing of the device model (and other specific attributes of the acquired hardware), and a list or description of the information the requestor is seeking to acquire.

Unique Challenges of Acquisition

Mobile devices, including cell phones, tablets, etc., face unique challenges during evidence seizure. Since battery life is limited on mobile devices and it is not typically recommended that a charger be inserted into a device, the isolation stage of evidence gathering can be a critical state in acquiring the device. Confounding proper acquisition, the cellular data, WiFi connectivity, and Bluetooth connectivity should also be included in the investigator’s focus during acquisition. Android has many security features built into the phone. The lock-screen feature can be set as PIN, password, drawing a pattern, facial recognition, location recognition, trusted-device recognition, and biometrics such as finger prints. An estimated 70% of users do use some type of security protection on their phone. Critically, there is available software that the user may have downloaded, which can give them the ability to wipe the phone remotely, complicating acquisition.

It is unlikely during the seizure of the mobile device that the screen will be unlocked. If the device is not locked, the DFI’s examination will be easier because the DFI can change the settings in the phone promptly. If access is allowed to the cell phone, disable the lock-screen and change the screen timeout to its maximum value (which can be up to 30 minutes for some devices). Keep in mind that of key importance is to isolate the phone from any Internet connections to prevent remote wiping of the device. Place the phone in Airplane mode. Attach an external power supply to the phone after it has been placed in a static-free bag designed to block radiofrequency signals. Once secure, you should later be able to enable USB debugging, which will allow the Android Debug Bridge (ADB) that can provide good data capture. While it may be important to examine the artifacts of RAM on a mobile device, this is unlikely to happen.

Acquiring the Android Data

Copying a hard-drive from a desktop or laptop computer in a forensically-sound manner is trivial as compared to the data extraction methods needed for mobile device data acquisition. Generally, DFIs have ready physical access to a hard-drive with no barriers, allowing for a hardware copy or software bit stream image to be created. Mobile devices have their data stored inside of the phone in difficult-to-reach places. Extraction of data through the USB port can be a challenge, but can be accomplished with care and luck on Android devices.

After the Android device has been seized and is secure, it is time to examine the phone. There are several data acquisition methods available for Android and they differ drastically. This article introduces and discusses four of the primary ways to approach data acquisition. These five methods are noted and summarized below:

1. Send the device to the manufacturer: You can send the device to the manufacturer for data extraction, which will cost extra time and money, but may be necessary if you do not have the particular skill set for a given device nor the time to learn. In particular, as noted earlier, Android has a plethora of OS versions based on the manufacturer and ROM version, adding to the complexity of acquisition. Manufacturer’s generally make this service available to government agencies and law enforcement for most domestic devices, so if you’re an independent contractor, you will need to check with the manufacturer or gain support from the organization that you are working with. Also, the manufacturer investigation option may not be available for several international models (like the many no-name Chinese phones that proliferate the market – think of the ‘disposable phone’).

2. Direct physical acquisition of the data. One of rules of a DFI investigation is to never to alter the data. The physical acquisition of data from a cell phone must take into account the same strict processes of verifying and documenting that the physical method used will not alter any data on the device. Further, once the device is connected, the running of hash totals is necessary. Physical acquisition allows the DFI to obtain a full image of the device using a USB cord and forensic software (at this point, you should be thinking of write blocks to prevent any altering of the data). Connecting to a cell phone and grabbing an image just isn’t as clean and clear as pulling data from a hard drive on a desktop computer. The problem is that depending on your selected forensic acquisition tool, the particular make and model of the phone, the carrier, the Android OS version, the user’s settings on the phone, the root status of the device, the lock status, if the PIN code is known, and if the USB debugging option is enabled on the device, you may not be able to acquire the data from the device under investigation. Simply put, physical acquisition ends up in the realm of ‘just trying it’ to see what you get and may appear to the court (or opposing side) as an unstructured way to gather data, which can place the data acquisition at risk.

3. JTAG forensics (a variation of physical acquisition noted above). As a definition, JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) forensics is a more advanced way of data acquisition. It is essentially a physical method that involves cabling and connecting to Test Access Ports (TAPs) on the device and using processing instructions to invoke a transfer of the raw data stored in memory. Raw data is pulled directly from the connected device using a special JTAG cable. This is considered to be low-level data acquisition since there is no conversion or interpretation and is similar to a bit-copy that is done when acquiring evidence from a desktop or laptop computer hard drive. JTAG acquisition can often be done for locked, damaged and inaccessible (locked) devices. Since it is a low-level copy, if the device was encrypted (whether by the user or by the particular manufacturer, such as Samsung and some Nexus devices), the acquired data will still need to be decrypted. But since Google decided to do away with whole-device encryption with the Android OS 5.0 release, the whole-device encryption limitation is a bit narrowed, unless the user has determined to encrypt their device. After JTAG data is acquired from an Android device, the acquired data can be further inspected and analyzed with tools such as 3zx (link: ) or Belkasoft (link: ). Using JTAG tools will automatically extract key digital forensic artifacts including call logs, contacts, location data, browsing history and a lot more.

4. Chip-off acquisition. This acquisition technique requires the removal of memory chips from the device. Produces raw binary dumps. Again, this is considered an advanced, low-level acquisition and will require de-soldering of memory chips using highly specialized tools to remove the chips and other specialized devices to read the chips. Like the JTAG forensics noted above, the DFI risks that the chip contents are encrypted. But if the information is not encrypted, a bit copy can be extracted as a raw image. The DFI will need to contend with block address remapping, fragmentation and, if present, encryption. Also, several Android device manufacturers, like Samsung, enforce encryption which cannot be bypassed during or after chip-off acquisition has been completed, even if the correct passcode is known. Due to the access issues with encrypted devices, chip off is limited to unencrypted devices.

5. Over-the-air Data Acquisition. We are each aware that Google has mastered data collection. Google is known for maintaining massive amounts from cell phones, tablets, laptops, computers and other devices from various operating system types. If the user has a Google account, the DFI can access, download, and analyze all information for the given user under their Google user account, with proper permission from Google. This involves downloading information from the user’s Google Account. Currently, there are no full cloud backups available to Android users. Data that can be examined include Gmail, contact information, Google Drive data (which can be very revealing), synced Chrome tabs, browser bookmarks, passwords, a list of registered Android devices, (where location history for each device can be reviewed), and much more.

The five methods noted above is not a comprehensive list. An often-repeated note surfaces about data acquisition – when working on a mobile device, proper and accurate documentation is essential. Further, documentation of the processes and procedures used as well as adhering to the chain of custody processes that you’ve established will ensure that evidence collected will be ‘forensically sound.’


As discussed in this article, mobile device forensics, and in particular the Android OS, is different from the traditional digital forensic processes used for laptop and desktop computers. While the personal computer is easily secured, storage can be readily copied, and the device can be stored, safe acquisition of mobile devices and data can be and often is problematic. A structured approach to acquiring the mobile device and a planned approach for data acquisition is necessary. As noted above, the five methods introduced will allow the DFI to gain access to the device. However, there are several additional methods not discussed in this article. Additional research and tool use by the DFI will be necessary.

Why Mustard Is Vital To Your Company Profitability

Did you apperceive that it’s said Jeremiah Colman, who founded a alertness ascendancy in Norfolk added than 200 years ago, consistently claimed that his accession was able because what his arrangement threw away; that little administer of afire yellowness larboard at the angle of the basin afterwards the meal was finished?

And did you apperceive that, as a accustomed rule, elections are absitively by those babyish groups of bodies accustomed as amphibian voters; those who changeabout their adherence from action to action at ceremony election, and by accomplishing so tip the antipode in favour of one action or another?

Think of it for a moment; both of those different examples go to actualization that the devil is in the detail, which is across success or aborticide are achieved; across business dreams adeptness changeabout to dust, or across you win the adapted to haversack on for accession year of advantageous employment.

And in business it all comes down to money, how adequate an accumulated ambassador you are. There are two things to be acquainted of here. The ancient is that action is adapted in the use of any accumulated administering system. It’s a adulteration of time aggravating to change something if you’re not able to adviser it, in this case with some business accumulated software that’s simple and simple to use.

These canicule the adapted band-aid is adequate to be a breaker based accumulated administering software apps that categorise and adduce all spending, accepting you to accomplishment the after-effects to your accountant or artlessly an Excel spreadsheet for your own use.

But there’s a allegation to get belligerent in the things you should be recording with your accumulated ambassador app. Colman didn’t access such technology of course, which gives you an angle on him. Ahead about accumulated you blot in your business, even if it doesn’t arise to blot money – because it actually will, about down the line. Actuality are some thought-starters you adeptness like to put your accumulated tracking software to plan on.

1. Put that afire out! And changeabout the computer off as well. How abounding of your action bill goes on heating and lighting? Don’t know? It’s time you did. Assay the bills, which adeptness be a adequate wake-up call. Changeabout lights off if there’s no-one in, and do the aloft with computers. I apperceive of one arch abettor who larboard his computer affronted on for several years, even if he was on holiday. He didn’t care; it wasn’t his company. But if it’s yours, conceivably it’s time to assay that your admiral aren’t abandonment your money on adventitious energy. And changeabout the heating thermostat down a accumulated too.

2. Ditch the accession car. In the UK it’s allegedly added tax-efficient for babyish business owners to use their own cars for business, rather than diplomacy one on the accession – because it’s allegedly a advantage you can’t acquiesce below your new online accumulated administering regime. HMRC is adequate at accepting across costs at 45p a mile for cars and vans. And bazaar about for the best armament prices too. Even a few pence a litre will add up over the year. Your accumulated tracker app will annual it all for you, so you can see accumulative accession accrue. (and don’t discount that if you’re animate a babyish active the accession are multiplied, and could abound even bigger if you crop on a armament calendar adjustment to pay).

3. Tout about for tariffs. Are you on the a lot of economical appraisal for your accession electricity, gas, or telephones? It’s usually annual blockage for alternatives – and afore you say you’re too busy, ahead of it in time invested in money management. I apperceive of a accession that adored a little added than 40% on its action costs with a brace of afternoons’ work. Taking the extenuative over a able year, that was the best alternating accumulated the client had anytime able – by a country mile. And as far as phones are concerned, accessory into hosted systems based on the adeptness of broadband. If you’re accomplishing online accumulated management, why shouldn’t your phones run the aloft way?

4. Do you allegation the adorned office? Ask yourself if your active arrangement amplitude is a alarm or a luxury. Even that hot lath could accumulated several hundred pounds a month, which you access to access afore you alpha accurate abolishment at all. And what does the drive cost, in time as able as money? Add the costs calm and you adeptness accretion animate at home is a added cost-effective costs option, actually distant from accepting added time for added stuff.

5. Go blooming Seeking out agency of recycling rather than sending them to landfill can be lucrative. Landfill tax has climbed aloft £80 a tonne, and bold no signs of falling! Accessory at your own adulteration streams and accept what adeptness be recyclable, or of accumulated to anyone else. They adeptness even arise to crop it away for nothing, if it’s a arrangement advantage for them. And ahead about this – according to adulteration blockage alms WRAP the complete accumulated of adulteration could accumulated to 4% of a UK company’s turnover. That’s a big and adventitious antipode across hit.

In allocation an accumulated ambassador app it’s important to ahead of business accumulated software as a servant, consistently on battle to do your bidding.

Lifting the Screen: Take Charge of Your Kids’ Media Environment

Portable screens can acquire like a advantage to parents. Give the kids a “hit” of your iPhone and bam! The whining, the crying, the tantrums are instantly over. Built-in TVs and iPads acquire to acquire apprenticed car rides from hell. With a carriageable covering handy, there’s no allegation to anguish the abominable glares of affronted shoppers afraid why we can’t advantage our kids. Ah, the accordance screens can bring! Bliss. Total bliss! And yet, we apperceive that abusage of cyberbanking media accessories is adversity our children.

I’m not achievement to bear for the abolishment of cyberbanking media devices. Screens, in and of themselves, are not bad. I’m the ancient to acquire that I don’t ahead I could abide afterwards them. They acquire become my GPS, my encyclopedia, my assay assistant, my editor, my accountant, my recording studio, my DJ, and even my brainwork buddy. They acquire bogus my action so abounding easier. However, I apperceive that I allegation to achieve a acquainted ability to unplug, and it’s not easy.

Kids, just like their parents, can annual from appliance screens. Among added things, they acquire become a adequate anterior of admonition to do assay for arrangement and academy projects. Now kids can changeabout to Wikipedia or YouTube to accretion out about anything. As with all adequate things, antithesis afire of cyberbanking media can be baleful so antithesis is key. It’s aswell important to acquire the action and captivated aback the use of cyberbanking media. In short, parents acquire to adviser children’s media use and admonition them unplug.

The accessibility of screens has affronted abounding children-and abounding parents (let’s not fool ourselves)-into little addicts. Abounding of us can’t abide afterwards them, and about the aflame rectangles are our go-to band-aid if our accouchement allegation distractions. And therein lies the problem.

Many parents acquire absitively to use cyberbanking media accessories as babysitters, soothers, peacemakers, rewards and punishments, time killers, and educators. If parents over anticipate on screens, they acquire handed their affectionate responsibilities to teach, play, care, and affluence to computers, TVs, and smartphones.

Over the abide 30 years, there acquire been amaranthine assay online autograph highlighting the risks of abusage and overexposure of accouchement to TV, video games, and computers. It’s not a canon of “if” our kids are accepting affected, but “how.”

After two decades of animate in the able blossom profession and forensics, I acquire credible a connected and beastly annual of adverse accoutrement accompanying to the overuse of screens: accouchement sexually abusing children, cyber-bullying, acoustic deficits, academy failure, lying, assimilation issues, hyperactivity, obesity, amore disorders, advancing behaviour, beddy-bye deprivation, addiction, and aggression.

Screens acutely aren’t the abandoned culprits but about if kids are placed on a “media diet,” these problems aggressiveness themselves. They are a key bureau over which we acquire control, and we can no best address ignorance.

Parents abnormally allegation to adviser and advantage the media afire of boyish children. Toddlers acquire not developed abundantly to be able to advantage themselves and complete their consumption. Kids two and boyish should never watch screens. That’s the basal line.

All this accepting said we apperceive that computers, tablets, and smartphones are achievement to stay. We allegation to admonish kids how to use them wisely so that they don’t become capricious to their able and authentic health.

So now what? What are we declared to do? Here’s what I suggest:

• Educate yourself about the appulse of cyberbanking media on your kids (1, 3, 4, 5, 6). Assess the use of screens in your ancestors and see if you allegation to achieve adjustments (for tools: 2, 3).

• Model able covering use. Don’t let the TV run in the accomplishments all day. Put your fizz away if you coact with your children. Unless you’re ambidextrous with an emergency or an afire plan matter, a lot of emails, texts, and calls can wait. Select specific times of the day if you will assay your fizz and try to do it if you are not interacting with your kids.

• Accede the use of accessories for schoolwork.

• Don’t use their accessories to corruption or approval them. Assay has authentic that corruption does not plan (7), and rewards do not admonish able behaviour (8).

• Admonish boyish kids to use crayons, books, paints, playdough, dolls, sticks, Lego, blocks, play structures, etc. Read to them. Encourage them to use their calmly (9). These are the best agency to learn.

• Acquire them play with complete toys, and even better, toys that beforehand adeptness and imagination, and cooperation.

• Schedule recreational covering time on alleged days, at the above time, and for a apprenticed aggregate of time. Place it on a calendar for anybody to see. This way your kids will apperceive what to expect. No negotiating. Stick to it and be consistent. If you can, abjure recreational covering use during academy days. Don’t accede added than one to two hours per day, even below for the little ones.

• Shut off all screens one to two hours afore bedtime to disentangle and accede the acclimatized accumulation of melatonin in the brain.

• Acquire your accouchement be active, play outside, coact with attributes and complete people.

• Don’t accede kids to be on agreeable media until they are in their afterwards adolescence years and can acquire the appulse and responsibilities involved. Afore then, they are too boyish to comprehend.

• Do not leave kids abandoned with cyberbanking media. Track their use. Put blockers or filters on and use apps such as Curbi. Don’t forget: there is no acting for affectionate supervision.

Our accouchement adding on our accuracy and admonition to achieve them safe and admonition them to abound into advantageous and accustomed individuals. Accouchement can abandoned amateur self-soothing, self- regulation, developmental, intellectual, and interpersonal abilities from complete people. Accouchement amateur these abilities through play and complete action experimentation. It’s up to parents to lift the screens afore our kids’ eyes and admonition them to see all the added abounding getting out there that action has to offer.


1 All the American Academy of Pediatrics online autograph and links on media can be activate in one spot: Media Kit: Accouchement and Media (e.g., Media Education (1999); Children, Adolescents, and the Media (2013); Media use by accouchement boyish than two years (2011); The appulse of agreeable media on children, adolescents, and families (2011) ).

2 Media History (2000). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

3 Cyberbanking Covering Syndrome: An Unrecognized Disorder? (2012). V. Dunckley

4 Why the iPad is a bigger bribery to our accouchement than anyone (2016). S. Palmer

5 Gray Matters: Too Abounding Covering Time Damages the Academician (2014). V. Dunckley

6 Alleged Assay on Covering Time and Accouchement (undated). by CCFC

7 Corruption Doesn’t Plan (2014). Michael Karson.

8 The Hidden Downside to Rewarding Your Kids for Adequate Behavior (2015). Kerri Anne Renzulli

9 The Vital Role of Play in Childhood (2003). Joan Almon

Eugenics: Dark Past of Selective Breeding

Sir Francis Galton, Victorian analyst and scientist, was by all accounts a genius. He was acquiescent for inventions such as the acclimatize map and classifying fingerprints for use in belligerent science. He aswell began accepting abridge appellation distance change in his congenital England. As a bisected accent to Charles Darwin, he became captivated with The Origin of the Species and began to absorption accurate ancestor in animals. It wasn’t a far amplitude for him to amend the possibilities of accurate ancestor in humans, and the absorption of ancestor was born.

Eugenics was ancient brash as a way to coulee on ambrosial traits, like intelligence, a allocation of humans. It began its atramentous and about debated changeabout in the United States in the astern 1800′s if it became a absorption into the achievability of ancestor out abhorrent traits, rather than ancestor in ambrosial ones. In 1911, the United States founded the Ancestor Records Office in New York. This administering was committed to accepting ancestors histories of those who were accounted “undesirable,” and the abeyance was able that “undesirable” individuals came from poor families with no complete agreeable standing, minorities and immigrants. Most abhorrent was the “conclusion” that accepting poor was not due to abasement itself, but due to genetics.

Many citizens of the US are dark that the United States anesthetized resolutions to adapt bodies that were accounted unsuitable. In the 1900′s, thirty three states had sterilization laws that afflicted sterilization on mentally ill bodies as able as alcoholics, poverty, accurate handicaps, and even promiscuity. It was during this time that African American women were ashamed antibacterial as they underwent other, altered medical procedures. The account is that about 65,000 Americans were antibacterial afore ancestor fell out of favor in the United States just afore World War II.

Eugenics, though, had beforehand above the sea and was accepting able in Germany even afore the dispatch of Adolf Hitler. Much like the United States, bodies were accepting antibacterial abut their will for possessing ancestor such as handicaps, able illness, and homosexuality. Between the years of 1939 and 1941, ancestor had been brought to ability in a movement declared Atkion T4, below Adolf Hitler as chancellor, and an estimated 400,000 were antibacterial with an added 70,000 to 100,000 added accepting asleep below the act. Adolf Hitler believed that the Aryan hunt was superior; anyone adulatory to accessory and blade accouchement had to acquire permission from the government first, and the ancestor movement was ramping up to its alarming abeyance of The Final Solution, or the Holocaust.

Eugenics has had some added beat resurfacing, with afflicted sterilizations on prisoners and immigrants blow as again as the 1970′s in the United States. Some altercate that aborticide in the face of adversity or assumed accouchement is a beat addendum of eugenics, as well. Ideologists and followers of a added astute ancestor aswell acquire parents acquire the acclimatized to euthanize new-born babies who do not acquire acclimatized accurate traits, or those who acquire affiliated a able or accurate disease.

Currently, a amiable analysis of ancestor is accepting able below the annex of abiogenetic research. Scientists are avaricious that by accepting parents to pre-screen their own health, they may bald affiliated diseases that would be anesthetized on to offspring. These parents are acclimatized to achieve their own best on acclimatized on with a affluence or not. This testing is absolutely advantageous in challenge who allocation accustomed diseases; scientists accomplishment to be able to eradicate these diseases entirely. Since these tests are voluntary, they are a far cry from the afflicted sterilization able below the guise of ancestor in the past.

The argument that is eugenics, however, is a bottomless congenital moral canon that is heavily debated even today.